The initial network topology is the same as for the static routing exercise
t2-router1#reload ... t2-router1#show ip route The only routes you should see are (C)onnected routes for your own interfaces. If you have any (S)tatic routes, delete them like this: t2-router1#conf t t2-router1(config)#no ip route 188.8.131.52 255.255.255.248 184.108.40.206 ... t2-router1#write mem
t2-router1#ping 220.127.116.11 t2-router1#ping 18.104.22.168
(Your PC won't be able to ping any other PCs though, because your router doesn't have the routes any more)
t2-router1#conf t t2-router1(config)#router ospf 1 t2-router1(config-router)#network 22.214.171.124 0.0.0.31 area 0 Note: 0.0.0.31 is a "wildmask", which is like a netmask but with 0 and 1 exchanged. Easy way to calculate: subtract each netmask byte from 255 t2-router1(config-router)#redistribute connected subnets t2-router1(config-router)#redistribute static subnets t2-router1(config-router)#area 0 authentication message-digest t2-router1(config-router)#int e1 (or int e0/1) t2-router1(config-if)#ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 t2@afnog t2-router1(config-if)#ip ospf cost 100 t2-router1(config-if)# [Hit ctrl-Z]
In real life you should use an MD5 key which is different to your login, enable and SNMP strings
You can also try an IOS 12.0 feature which explicitly disables OSPF on all interfaces except those you norminate:
t2-router1(config)#router ospf 1 t2-router1(config-router)#passive-interface default t2-router1(config-router)#no passive-interface e1 (or e0/1)
t2-router1#show ip ospf int t2-router1#show ip ospf neighbor
To interpret the neighbor information:
2WAY = we are neighbors (we have established 2-way exchange of hellos), but neither of us is a designated router FULL = we are neighbors and we exchange routes (one of us is DR or BDR) DR = we are the Designated Router for this network BDR = we are the Backup Designated Router for this network DROTHER = we are neither DR nor BDR
If you see other states, they are intermediate steps on the way to establishing the final relationship, and should change after a few seconds.
DR = BDR =
t2-router1#show ip route
Routes learned through OSPF are tagged with O. Check that the next hop IP address for each route is correct
Also, the far router should also have picked up your route. You can go over to the other desk and ask to see "show ip route"
$ ping 126.96.36.199 ...
Don't type this - it goes on the class border router cape-border-1(config)#router ospf 1 cape-border-1(config-router)#default-information originate metric 100
This should be sufficient to establish connectivity to the outside Internet! Use ping, traceroute etc. to test this
/etc/resolv.confon your PC
domain t2.ws.afnog.org nameserver 188.8.131.52 nameserver 184.108.40.206You should then be able to ssh/telnet to the outside world.
A loopback interface is a single (/32) IP address which belongs to a device, independent of its physical interface addresses. It's very convenient when managing routers, because you can use the loopback address as a fixed address to telnet to, or monitor using SNMP, which will continue to work even if one or more of the interfaces has failed.
t2-router1#conf t t2-router1(config)#int loopback0 t2-router1(config-if)#ip address 220.127.116.11 255.255.255.255 t2-router1(config-if)# [Hit ctrl-Z]
For safety, at this point you will also store a copy of your router configuration on your Unix PC.
# vi /etc/inetd.conf Find the line for tftp. Uncomment it, by removing the # at the front Exit and save # killall -1 inetd # vi /etc/hosts.allow Add the following lines at or near the top: use your router's IP address tftpd : 18.104.22.168 : allow tftpd : ALL : deny Exit and save # mkdir /tftpboot # touch /tftpboot/t2-config # chmod 666 /tftpboot/t2-config
(Note that the tftp daemon requires a file to already exist, and be publicly writable, before it will allow writes)
t2-router1#copy running-config tftp Address or name of remote host? 22.214.171.124 Destination filename [running-config]? t2-config !! 774 bytes copied in 2.836 seconds (387 bytes/sec) t2-router1#
$ more /tftpboot/t2-config(To return to a saved configuration: do "copy tftp startup-config" to download it into flash, then "reload").
Above you showed how OSPF can learn routes from the rest of your network, without having to manually insert static routes. Now you can show how OSPF can adapt to topology changes and choose better (lower cost) routes when they are available
Don't save your configuration when working in this section - this is so we can get back to the configuration you saved above.
t2-router1#conf t t2-router1(config)#int s0 (or int s0/0) t2-router1(config-if)#description Serial link to desk 2 t2-router1(config-if)#encap ppp t2-router1(config-if)#ip address 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.252 t2-router1(config-if)#no shutdown
Once this is done on both routers, "show int s0" should show that the Interface is up (layer 1), but Line protocol is down (layer 2).
t2-router1(config-if)#clock rate 64000
This is only because this is a back-to-back cable; normally you would use synchronous modems which generate clock
t2-router1#conf t t2-router1(config)#router ospf 1 t2-router1(config-router)#network 188.8.131.52 0.0.0.3 area 0 t2-router1(config-router)#no passive-interface s0 (or s0/0) t2-router1(config-router)#int s0 (or s0/0) t2-router1(config-if)#ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 t2@afnog t2-router1(config-if)#ip ospf cost 500 t2-router1(config-if)# [Hit ctrl-Z]
t2-router1#show ip route
Look carefully at the route to your neighbor's desk network, and your neighbor's router loopback interface, and make a note of it.
Does the desk which had its ethernet unplugged still have connectivity to the Internet? When you traceroute, what route do the packets take?
Look at the routes again. What has happened to the route to your neighbor's desk network, and to their loopback interface?
Check the forwarding table ("show ip route"). Now what do you notice about the route to your neighboring desk's network?